David Nicolle, "An introduction to arms and warfare in classical Islam", in: Islamic Arms and Armour, ed. Robert Elgood, London 1979




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175 The Denial of St Peter, Syriac Gospel, thirteenth century. (Vat. Syr. 559, f.135, Biblioteca Apostolica, Vatican)


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176 Fāṭimid wooden panel showing warrior leading mount, eleventh twelfth century, (Louvre) Photograph by Musées nationaux.

177 Carved wooden panel of warrior-hunter, from Fāṭimid Palace. Eleventh/twelfth century. Museum of Islamic Art, Cairo)
178 Detail of stone alter screen, sixth/seventh century, from Tsebelda Church. (S.N. Dyanashiya State Museum of Georgia)


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179 Eleventh/twelfth-century Byzantine warrior saint, fresco in 'Serpent Church', Göreme, Turkey

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180 Detail of eleventh/twelth-century Byzantine 'Skylitzes' manuscript showing Byzantine and Saracen troops. (Biblioteca nacionale, Madrid. Skylitzes Manuscript - Cod 5-3. NZ)


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181 Inlaid silver bottle from early thirteenth-century Persia showing mounted warriors using lances and crossbows, also infantrymen (or dismounted cavalry) with swords. (Free Gallery of Art, Washington)





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182 Tenth-century carving of Goliath.
Armenian church of 'Gagik' on Aght'amar island.
Lake Van. Turkey.



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183 Detail of eleventh century Byzantine 'Skylitzes' manuscript showing Saljuq Turks pursuing foes. (Biblioteca Nacionale, Madrid. Skylitzes Manuscript - Cod 5-3, NZ)


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185
184
184 Saljuq 'mīnā 'ī ware' painted bowl from early thirteenth-century Persia, showing a castle being besieged. (Freer Gallery of Art. Washington)


185 Inlaid brass writing box showing allegorical figure (of Scorpio?), from Mosul c.1200-1250 AD (Franks Bequest, British Museum)


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186 Painted paper fragment from Fusṭāṭ, twelfth century, showing Fāṭimid troops emerging from fortress to engage European Crusaders. (Dept. of Oriental Antiquities, British Museum)
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188
187 and 188 Late fourteenth-century painted leather ceiling in 'La Sala de los Reyes', Alhambra, Granada.



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189 Beatus manuscript, twelfth-century Spain. Army of Nebuchadnezzar etc. (Pierpoint Morgan Library)



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190 Saracen giant Faragut slain by Roland, twelth-century carved capital from the Palace of the Dukes of Granada, Estella, Spain.

191 Saracen warrior following Faragut, twelth-century carved capital from the Palace of the Dukes of Granada, Estella, Spain.



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192 'Horseman of the Apocalypse' Spain, twelfth/thirteenth century. (Pierpoint Morgan Library)



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193 Queen Melisande's Psalter, twelfth century, Palestine Syria, Crusader workmanship from the Frankish States - armour shows Western, Byzantine, and Islamic types. (British museum)



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194 Tenth-century fresco, Iran. (Museum of Islamic Art, Tehran)


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182 ISLAMIC ARMS AND ARMOUR

Fig. 1. Carved figure from Cave no. 8, 'Nāga' Cave, Sorçuq; eastern Turkestan, eighth century. (Museum für Völkerkunde, Berlin)

Fig. 2. Stucco figure in shrine D II, Dandān-Uliq. Khotan: eastern Turkestan, late eighth century. (Sinkiang, China)

Fig. 3. Statuette from Sorçuq; eastern Turkestan, eighth century. (Museum für Völkerkunde, Berlin)

Fig. 4. Statue from Khirbat al-Mafjar; Palestine, eighth century. (Palestine Archaeological Museum, Jerusalem)

Fig. 5. Statue from Palace entrance hall, Khirbat al-Mafjar: Palestine, eighth century. (Palestine Archaeological Museum, Jerusalem)

Fig. 6. Statue from Bath Porch, Khirbat al-Mafjar: Palestine, eighth century. (Palestine Archaeological Museum, Jerusalem)

Fig. 7. Statuettes of warriors from Khirbat al-Mafjar: Palestine, eighth century. (Palestine Archaeological Museum, Jerusalem)

Fig. 8. Fresco from Khirbat al-Mafjar: Palestine, eighth century (Palestine Archaeological Museum, Jerusalem)

Fig. 9. Moorish soldiers from Spanish chronicle: Spain, late thirteenth century. (Escorial. Escorial Ms T-I-1)

Fig. 10. Moorish soldiers from Cantigas of Alfonso X (Canto XLVI); Spain, late thirteenth century. (Escorial. Escorial Ms T-I-1)

Fig. 11. Bodyguard of the Sultan. Cantigas of Alfonso X (Canto XXVII); Spain, late thirteenth century. (Escorial)

Fig. 12. Fresco from dome of Ḥarīm. Jawsaq-Samarra: Iraq, 836-839 AD. (Museum of Turkish and Islamic Art, Istanbul)

Fig. 13. Fresco from Arcade, Jawsaq-Samarra: Iraq, 836-839 AD. (Museum of Turkish and Islamic Art, Istanbul)

Fig. 14. Beheading of John the Baptist, Syriac manuscript: Jazīra, thirteenth century (Vatican Library, Ms Syr. 559. f. 18r)

Fig. 15. Carving of Turkish warriors: Turkey, thirteenth century (Museum of Turkish and Islamic Art, Istanbul)

Fig 16. Turkish helmets: Turkey, thirteenth/fourteenth century. (Topkapu Armoury, Istanbul)

Fig. 17. Frescoes from Lashkari Bazaar: Afghanistan, eleventh century. (Lashkari Bazaar, Afghanistan)

Fig. 18. Frescoes from the 'Painter's Cave', Kyzyl valley; eastern Turkestan, c. 750 AD. (Museum für Völkerkunde, Berlin)

Fig. 19. Painted paper from Manichean temple. Chotscho: eastern Turkestan. Eighth-ninth century. (Museum für Völkerkunde, Berlin)     [19. Manichaean Silk Painting, Chotscho]

Fig. 20. Fresco mounted warrior from Manichean temple, Chotscho; eastern Turkestan, eighth-ninth century. (Museum für Völkerkunde, Berlin)

Fig. 21. Carved heads in 'Sasanian' style from Tumsuq; eastern Turkestan, sixth-seventh century (Museum für Völkerkunde, Berlin)

Fig. 22. Carved figure of 'Indian' or 'Sasanian' style from Kyzyl eastern Turkestan, eighth century. (Museum für Völkerkunde, Berlin)

Fig. 23. Statue from Kyzyl valley; eastern Turkestan, eighth century. See Russkaya Turkestanskaya Exspediciya.

Fig 24. Hand-axes on fresco from Karasahr; western Turkestan, eighth century. (Museum für Völkerkunde, Berlin)

Fig. 25. Axes on fresco from Bazaklik; eastern Turkestan. (Museum für Völkerkunde, Berlin)

Fig. 26. Clay figure of rider from Astāna cemetery, eastern Turkestan, seventh- eighth century. (British Museum Ast iii. 2.021)



182 ISLAMIC ARMS AND ARMOUR

Fig. 1. Carved figure from Cave no. 8, 'Nāga' Cave, Sorçuq; eastern Turkestan, eighth century. (Museum für Völkerkunde, Berlin)

Fig. 2. Stucco figure in shrine D II, Dandān-Uliq. Khotan: eastern Turkestan, late eighth century. (Sinkiang, China)

Fig. 3. Statuette from Sorçuq; eastern Turkestan, eighth century. (Museum für Völkerkunde, Berlin)

Fig. 4. Statue from Khirbat al-Mafjar; Palestine, eighth century. (Palestine Archaeological Museum, Jerusalem)

Fig. 5. Statue from Palace entrance hall, Khirbat al-Mafjar: Palestine, eighth century. (Palestine Archaeological Museum, Jerusalem)

Fig. 6. Statue from Bath Porch, Khirbat al-Mafjar: Palestine, eighth century. (Palestine Archaeological Museum, Jerusalem)

Fig. 7. Statuettes of warriors from Khirbat al-Mafjar: Palestine, eighth century. (Palestine Archaeological Museum, Jerusalem)

Fig. 8. Fresco from Khirbat al-Mafjar: Palestine, eighth century (Palestine Archaeological Museum, Jerusalem)

Fig. 9. Moorish soldiers from Spanish chronicle: Spain, late thirteenth century. (Escorial. Escorial Ms T-I-1)

Fig. 10. Moorish soldiers from Cantigas of Alfonso X (Canto XLVI); Spain, late thirteenth century. (Escorial. Escorial Ms T-I-1)

Fig. 11. Bodyguard of the Sultan. Cantigas of Alfonso X (Canto XXVII); Spain, late thirteenth century. (Escorial)

Fig. 12. Fresco from dome of Ḥarīm. Jawsaq-Samarra: Iraq, 836-839 AD. (Museum of Turkish and Islamic Art, Istanbul)

Fig. 13. Fresco from Arcade, Jawsaq-Samarra: Iraq, 836-839 AD. (Museum of Turkish and Islamic Art, Istanbul)

Fig. 14. Beheading of John the Baptist, Syriac manuscript: Jazīra, thirteenth century (Vatican Library, Ms Syr. 559. f. 18r)

Fig. 15. Carving of Turkish warriors: Turkey, thirteenth century (Museum of Turkish and Islamic Art, Istanbul)

Fig 16. Turkish helmets: Turkey, thirteenth/fourteenth century. (Topkapu Armoury, Istanbul)

Fig. 17. Frescoes from Lashkari Bazaar: Afghanistan, eleventh century. (Lashkari Bazaar, Afghanistan)

Fig. 18. Frescoes from the 'Painter's Cave', Kyzyl valley; eastern Turkestan, c. 750 AD. (Museum für Völkerkunde, Berlin)

Fig. 19. Painted paper from Manichean temple. Chotscho: eastern Turkestan. Eighth-ninth century. (Museum für Völkerkunde, Berlin)     [19. Manichaean Silk Painting, Chotscho]

Fig. 20. Fresco mounted warrior from Manichean temple, Chotscho; eastern Turkestan, eighth-ninth century. (Museum für Völkerkunde, Berlin)

Fig. 21. Carved heads in 'Sasanian' style from Tumsuq; eastern Turkestan, sixth-seventh century (Museum für Völkerkunde, Berlin)

Fig. 22. Carved figure of 'Indian' or 'Sasanian' style from Kyzyl eastern Turkestan, eighth century. (Museum für Völkerkunde, Berlin)

Fig. 23. Statue from Kyzyl valley; eastern Turkestan, eighth century. See Russkaya Turkestanskaya Exspediciya.

Fig 24. Hand-axes on fresco from Karasahr; western Turkestan, eighth century. (Museum für Völkerkunde, Berlin)

Fig. 25. Axes on fresco from Bazaklik; eastern Turkestan. (Museum für Völkerkunde, Berlin)

Fig. 26. Clay figure of rider from Astāna cemetery, eastern Turkestan, seventh- eighth century. (British Museum Ast iii. 2.021)



184 ISLAMIC ARMS AND ARMOUR

Fig. 27. Fresco of horseman from 'Town Cave', Sorçuq; eastern Turkestan. eighth century. (Sinkiang. China)

Fig. 28. 'Iranians leaving Castle of Furud', lustre tile from Kāshān; Persia, thirteenth century. (Museum of Fine Arts, Boston)

Fig. 29. Stucco carving of Sultan Kilij Arslan II; Turkey, thirteenth century. (Museum of Turkish and Islamic Art, Istanbul)

Fig. 30. Rabī‛ ibn ‘Adnān making a night attack, manuscript of Varqeh va-Golshāh; Āzarbāyjān, late twelfth century. (Topkapu Saray Museum, Istanbul, Top. Ahmet III, Ms Hazine 841, f. 3/6a)

Fig. 31. Figure on carved gateway from Sinjar; Jazīra, twelfth-thirteenth century, (National Museum, Baghdad)

Fig. 32. Figure from inlaid ewer by Ibrāhīm ibn Mawāliyā; Mosul, early thirteenth century. (Louvre, Paris, No. 3435)

Fig. 33. Caravan guard, carved wooden frieze from Fāṭimid Royal Palace / Hospital of Qala‛ūn; Egypt, eleventh century. (Museum of Arab Art, Cairo)

Fig. 34. Axe from Execution of Sham and Enoch. Commentary of Beatus; Spain, twelfth century. (Archaeological Museum, Madrid)

Fig. 35. Heads from 'Massacre of the innocents', carved capital from Santa Maria de Aguilar de Campo; Spain, twelfth century. (Archaeological Museum, Madrid)

Fig. 36. Moorish garrison. 'James I of Aragon-Catalonia entering Valencia in triumph', fresco in Castel d'Alcanyis; Spain, late thirteenth century. (Castel d'Alcanyis)

Fig. 37. Fresco from Avolokitesvaru at Bäzäklik; eastern Turkestan, ninth-tenth century. (Museum für Völkerkunde, Berlin)

Fig. 38. Sword carried by the Prophet, manuscript page showing bishop and prefect of Najrān in Yemen before Muḥammad; Baghdad, 1217-1218 AD. (National Library, Cairo, Ms 579 adad.)

Fig. 39. Allegorical Figures from 'Treatise on Astrology' by Abū Ma‛shar al-Balkhī; Egypt, 1240 AD. (Bibliothèque National, Paris, Ms Arabe 2583)

Fig. 40. Saljuq swords, believed to be late thirteenth century. (Bay Koyunoglu Collection, Konya)

Fig. 41. Swords from Patzinak graves near Kiev and Kursk; Ukraine, ninth-thirteenth centuries. (Kiev)

Fig. 42. Fresco, Iran tenth century. (Museum of Islamic Art, Tehran)

Fig. 43. Sword held by 'Jazrafīl who rides on an elephant', painted paper from Fusṭāṭ; Egypt, c. 1200 AD. (Department of Oriental Antiquities, British Museum)

Fig. 44. Carved ivory box of ‛Abd al-Malik; Spain 1004-1005 AD. (Cathedral Treasury, Pamplona)

Fig. 45. Painted ivory box; Sicily, twelfth century. (Museo Nazionale, Florence)

Fig. 46. Man riding an elephant, Sicilian painted ivory box; Sicily, twelfth century. (Capella Palatina Treasury, Palermo)

Fig. 47. Allegorical figure of War, manuscript of 'War and Medicine' by ‛Abdallāh ibn al-Faḍl; Iraq, 1222 AD. (Royal Asiatic Society, London)

Fig. 48. Inlaid cauldron, Jazīra, early fourteenth century. (Mevlana Museum, Konya)

Fig. 49. Figures from inlaid cauldron; Jazīra, early fourteenth century. (Mevlana Museum, Konya)

Fig. 50. Mounted Moorish warrior from Cantigas of Alfonso X (Canto CLXXXV); Spain, late thirteenth century. (Escorial)

Fig. 51. Lances held by Spanish cavalry, bible written for Grand Master of Knights of Calatrava; Spain, 1422-1433 AD. (Duke of Alba Collection, Madrid)

Fig. 52. Bedouin lances, 'Ḥarīrī's Travels'; Iraq, 1225-1235 AD. (Oriental Institute, Academy of Sciences, Leningrad, Ms S.23)


Fig. 53. Spear from manuscript by Naṣīr al-Dīn Siwasī; Persia, 1272 AD. (Bibliothèque National, Paris, Ms AF. Pers. 174)

Fig. 54. Fresco from 'Painters Cave', Kyzyl Valley; eastern Turkestan, c. 750 AD. (Museum für Völkerkunde, Berlin)

Fig. 55. Carved wooden frieze from Fāṭimid Royal Palace / Hospital of Qala‛ūn: Egypt, eleventh century. (Museum of Arab Art, Cairo)

Fig. 56. Infantryman in battle between Banī Shayba and Banī Zabba. Ms of Varqeh va-Golshāh; Āzarbāyjān, late twelfth century. (Topkapu Saray Museum, Istanbul, Top. Ahmet III, Ms Hazine 841, f.10/12a)

Fig. 57. Spears carried by guards in Garden of Gethsemane, Syriac manuscript; Syria 1216-1220 AD. (British Library, Ms Add, 7170)

Fig. 58. Spear of Governor of Rahba, 'Ḥarīrī's Travels'; Iraq, 1237 AD. (Bibliothèque National, Paris, Ms Arabe 5847)

Fig. 59. Shoulder-high spear from frontispiece, Kitāb al-Diryaq: Mosul, mid-thirteenth century. (Nationale Bibliothek, Vienna. Ms AF.10)

Fig. 60. Spear. Sudan, nineteenth century, (Tatton Park)

Fig. 61. Rūm spear carried as symbol of rank in Bornu, about three metres long; western Sudan, early twentieth century.



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See also Illustrations referenced by The military technology of classical Islam by David Nicolle
Index of Illustrations of Costume & Soldiers









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