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Egypt
and its territories
10th to 19th centuries

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Fatimid Illustrations of Costume & Soldiers
An Arab Cavalryman in a 10th Century Papyrus Drawing. Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Vienna, RZ00001936.
. An Arab Cavalryman in Armies of the Dark Ages 600-1066 by Ian Heath, based on the 10th Century Papyrus Drawing.
Fatimid-Zirid Bas-relief of Musician and Drinker. Bardo Palace Museum, Tunis.
Fatimid-Zirid Plate with a Battle Scene. Museum of Islamic Art, Raqqada, Tunisia.
Musician on a Bowl, Fatimid Egypt, 10th Century. Museo Nazionale del Bargello, Firenze, Italy.
Egyptian Ivory Plaque with Two Soldiers, 10th century. Louvre, Paris, 6701B.
Fatimid Ceramic Fragment from the Sabra Palace, 10-11th century. Benaki Museum, Athens, 11762.
Fatimid Horseman from Ifriqiyah on a Plate from Sabra, 10th to 12th Centuries. Bardo Museum, Tunis.
Fatimid Rider and Four Warriors on Coptic Textile, 11th Century. Museum of Islamic Art, Cairo.
Fatimid Carved Panel with Soldier, 11th Century. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.
Fatimid Ceramic Wall-Plaque with Warriors from the Sabra Palace, 11th century, Bardo Museum, Tunis
Fatimid Ceramic Wall-Plaque of Archer from the Sabra Palace, 11th century. Bardo Museum, Tunis
Fragment of a Fatimid Bowl Depicting a Mounted Warrior, 11th century, Brooklyn Museum.
Plaque with a running man and his dog, Fatimid Egypt, 11th Century. The Walters Art Museum, Baltimore, USA.
Fatimid Lustre Painted Dish with Musician from Fustat, 11th century. Museum of Islamic Art, Cairo.
Bathhouse Fresco of a Man with Goblet from Fustat, 11th Century. Museum of Islamic Art, Cairo.
Fatimid Wood Carving of Hunters, 11th Century. Museum of Islamic Art, Cairo.
Fatimid Rectangular piece of wood with swordsmen, 11th century, Museum of Islamic Art, Cairo.
Fatimid wooden plank with carved lion hunt from the Mausoleum of Sultan Qalawin, 11th century. Islamic Museum, Cairo.
Fatimid wooden plank with carved dancer from the Mausoleum of Sultan Qalawin, 11th century. Islamic Museum, Cairo.
Fatimid wooden plank with musicians and revellers from the Mausoleum of Sultan Qalawin, 11th century. Islamic Museum, Cairo.
Fatimid wooden plank with musicians and dancers from the Mausoleum of Sultan Qalawin, 11th century. Islamic Museum, Cairo.
Fatimid wooden plank with mounted hunter with lance from the Mausoleum of Sultan Qalawin, 11th century. Islamic Museum, Cairo.
Fatimid Carved Wood Panel, 11th Century. Louvre, Paris, OA 4062.
Carved Wooden Frieze with Hunter, Fatimid Egypt, 11th Century. Museum für Islamische Kunst, Berlin, I 26/61.
Fragmentary dish showing men with sticks, Fatimid Egypt, 11th century. Museum of Islamic Art, Cairo.
Fatimid bowl with a drinker, 11th century. David Collection, Copenhagen, Denmark, 4/1992.
Fatimid bowl with a drinker, 11th century. Benaki Museum of Islamic Art, Athens, ΓΕ 206.
Fatimid dish decorated with a banquet scene, 11th century. Benaki Museum of Islamic Art, Athens, ΓΕ 11120.
Fatimid dish with a lute player, 11th century. Benaki Museum of Islamic Art, Athens, ΓΕ 11121.
Fatimid dish decorated with drinker and musician, 11th century. Benaki Museum of Islamic Art, Athens.
Hunter on an ivory drinking horn probably made in Muslim Sicily or Southern Italy, 11th century. Victoria & Albert Museum, London.
Coptic Priest on a Plate, 1050-1100. Victoria & Albert Museum, London, C49-1952.
Shields on the Bab al-Nasr (Gate of Victory), 1087, Cairo.
Frieze of Hunters over the door of the Church of San Bernadetto, Brindisi, Italy, late 11th Century.
Fatimid Lustre Bowl Depicting a Lute Player, 11th-12th century. Harvey B. Plotnick Collection.
Fatimid Painted Paper with Cavalryman, 10th - 12th Centuries. Keir Collection, Dallas, I.008.
Fatimid Turban on Manuscript Fragment from Fustat, Egypt, 11th-12th Centuries. Museum of Islamic Art, Cairo, 12801.
Morgan Casket, Southern Italy, 11th-12th century. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 17.190.241.
Four ivory panels with hunters and revellers. 11th-12th century, Staatliche Museen, Berlin, I.6375.
Detail of carved ivory horn or 'oliphant' from Sicily. Musée Crozatier, Le Puy, France.
A carved ivory horn or 'oliphant', South Italian. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 04.3.177.
Ivory casket with Lion Hunt, Fatimid Sicily or Southern Italy. 11th-12th Centuries, Pergamon Museum, Berlin.
Figure with Goblet on Fatimid Bowl, 11th-12th century. Islamic Museum, Cairo.
Fatimid Manuscript with Two Soldiers, 11th-12th Centuries. Museum of Islamic Art, Cairo.
Fatimid Carved Ivory Panel with Hunters, 11th-12th Centuries. Louvre, Paris, Inv. no.: OA 6265/1.
Fatimid Carved Ivory Plaque with Drummer and Drinker, 11th-12th Century. Museo Nazionale del Bargello, Firenze, 80c 1.
Carved Ivory Plaque of Lion Hunt, Fatimid Egypt or Iraq, 11th-12th Century, Museo Nazionale del Bargello, Firenze, 80c 2.
Carved Ivory Plaque with Musicians, Fatimid Egypt, 11th Century. Museo Nazionale del Bargello, Florence, 80c 3.
Carved Ivory Plaque with Hunters, Fatimid Egypt, 11th Century. Museo Nazionale del Bargello, Florence, 80c 4.
Carved Ivory Plaque with Dancer, Fatimid Egypt, 11th Century. Museo Nazionale del Bargello, Florence, 80c 5.
Drawing of man with Lamp, Fustat, Fatimid Egypt, 11th Century. Keir Collection, Dallas, I.050.
Bowl with Labourer Carrying Basket, Fatimid Egypt, c.11th Century. Cairo Museum.
Bowl with Labourer Carrying Basket, Fatimid Egypt, c.11th Century. Keir Collection, Dallas, C.007.
Bowl with Groom and Giraffe, Fatimid Egypt, c.11th Century. Benaki Museum, Greece.
Fatimid dancer on an ivory panel, 11th-12th century. Louvre Museum, Paris, OA 6265/2; OA 6266.
Fatimid lute player on an ivory panel, 11th-12th century. Louvre Museum, Paris.
Two Seated Figures on a Plate Fragment, Fatimid Egypt, 11-12th Century. Barakat Gallery, UAE.
Fatimid Infantryman on a Plate, 12th Century. De Unger Collection, London.
Fatimid Warrior on Plate Fragment, 12th Century. Victoria & Albert Museum, London.
Fatimid Ivory Plaque with a Standing Figure, Egypt, 12th century. The Walters Art Museum, Baltimore, USA.
Islamic Sicilian Ivory Casket with Horsemen, 12th Century, Museo Nazionale del Bargello, Firenze, Italy.
A Fatimid Nobleman or Officer on a lustre-ware plate, 12th Century. Museum of Islamic Art, Cairo, Egypt.
Fatimid plate with mounted hunter, 12th century. Freer Gallery of Art, Washington.
Fatimid bowl with female scarf dancer, 12th century. Freer Gallery, Smithsonian's Museums of Asian Art, Washington.
Sicilian ivory pyxis, 12th century, Louvre Museum, Paris, France.
Fatimid wood panel with dancer, 12th century. Louvre Museum, Paris, France.
Fatimid Manuscript Fragment, Fustat, 12th Century. British Museum, London.
Fatimid bowl with a hunter on horse. Islamic Ceramics Museum, Cairo, Egypt.
Fatimid bowl with a musician, Islamic Ceramics Museum, Cairo, Egypt
Fatimid bowl with a drinker. Islamic Ceramics Museum, Cairo, Egypt
Fatimid bowl with young courtier. Islamic Museum, Cairo, Egypt
Manuscript illumination with depiction of a court scene. Islamic Museum, Cairo, Egypt.
Illustrations from a Coptic Gospel, Damietta, Egypt, 1179-80. Bibliothèque nationale de France, Paris, Cote Copte 13.
Manuscript with 'Jazrafil who rides an Elephant' from Fustat, c. 1200 AD. British Museum, London.
Camel Rider from the Cappella Palatina, Palermo, Sicily Italy.
Manuscripts of the 'Book of Fixed Stars' (Kitāb suwar al-kawākib al-ṯābita) by ‛Abd al-Rahman ibn ‛Umar al-Ṣūfī.
Sudanese Infantry:
A Sudanese spearman in the painted windows in the monastery church of St Denis in Paris.
. A Sudanese spearman from Armies and Enemies of the Crusades 1096-1291 by Ian Heath, based on the St Denis windows.
. A Sudanese Archer from Armies and Enemies of the Crusades 1096-1291 by Ian Heath.
Negroid warriors with mace in the capitals of Monreale Cathedral near Palermo in Sicily, 1174 to 1182 AD.
Dailami Infantry:
Daylamī extracts from 'The military technology of classical Islam' by David Nicolle.
Fatimids on Plate G, Men-At-Arms Series 125, The Armies of Islam 7th-11th Centuries by David Nicolle & Angus McBride.
A summary of the written souces on Dailami soldiers.
. A Daylami Tribesman in Armies of the Dark Ages 600-1066 by Ian Heath.
. A painting of a Daylami Infantryman, early 11th century, by Angus McBride.

Ayyubid Illustrations:
Horseman of Raqqa (Faris al-Raqqa), Zangid Jazira, 12th century. National Museum of Damascus, Syria.
Kitab al-Diryaq (the Book of Antidotes) by Pseudo-Gallen, Zangid Jazira, 1198AD. Bibliothèque Nationale de France, Paris, Ms. Arabe 2964.
Ayyubid Bowl with Horseman with Triangular Shield, Zangid Raqqa, Syria, 1186-1215AD. Museum für Islamische Kunst der Staatlichen Museen zu Berlin I. 4843.
Kitab al-Aghani (Book of Songs), Zangid Mosul, 1217-18AD.
Ayyubid Horse Archer on a Pilgrim Bottle (zamzamiyyah) Fragment, 12th-13th Century. British Museum, London.
Ayyubid Bowl with Horseman with Triangular Shield, 1186-1215AD. Museum für Islamische Kunst der Staatlichen Museen zu Berlin I. 4843.
A Syriac Gospel showing soldiers, Jazīrah, c.1220. British Library Ms. Add. 7170.
. Syrian Cavalryman c.1220 in Armies and Enemies of the Crusades 1096-1291 by Ian Heath, based on the c.1220 Syriac Gospel.
. Syrian Infantryman in Armies and Enemies of the Crusades 1096-1291 by Ian Heath, based on the c.1220 Syriac Gospel.
Maqamat of al-Hariri, Syria or the Jazira, 1222-23AD. Bibliothèque Nationale de France, Paris, Arabe 6094.
Ayyubid Horse-archer on a bowl, North Syria, 1st half of the 13th century. Louvre, Paris, France, MAO 610.
Maqamat of al-Hariri, c. 1225-35. St. Petersburg, Russia, Ms C-23.
Illustrations of Ayyubids on the Blacas Ewer, Mosul, Jarira, 1232 AD. The Walters Art Museum, Baltimore, USA.
Maqamat of al-Hariri, 1237AD. Bibliothèque Nationale de France, Paris, Ms Arabe 5847.
Maqamat of al-Hariri, 2nd quarter of 13th century. Bibliothèque Nationale de France, Paris, Ms Arabe 3929.
Ayyubid Rider on Bowl, 13th Century. The British Museum, London.
Ayyubid Hunters on a Canister, Egypt or Syria, 1238-40AD. Victoria and Albert Museum, London, 8508-1863.
Ayyubids on a Ewer, Jazirah, 1246-1247AD. The Walters Art Museum, Baltimore, USA, 54.456.
Illuminations from a Coptic Gospel. Institut Catholique, Paris, Ms. Copte-Arabe 1.
Maqamat of al-Hariri, Jazīrah, 1242-1258. Suleymaniye Ms Esad Efendi 2916, Istanbul, Turkey.
Ayyubid Soldier with two sticks on a bowl, Raqqa, Jazīrah, Syria, 13th century. Christie's.
Sgraffito-ware bowl showing a horseman in urban Arab costume, Syria?, 13th century. Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, Х-316.
The Fano Cup, Ayyubid Jazīrah or Syria, c. 1250 AD. Bibliothèque nationale de France, Cabinet des Médailles, Paris, Chabouillet n°3192.
Ayyubid cavalry with spear or crossbow, on a Glass Water-Flask, Syria, 1250-60. British Museum, London, 1869,0120.3.
. Saracen Crossbowman in Armies and Enemies of the Crusades 1096-1291 by Ian Heath based on the
Treaty between Acre and Kerak in Chronica Majora by Matthew Paris. Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, UK, MS 16II.
. Ayyubid Heavy Cavalryman in Armies and Enemies of the Crusades 1096-1291 by Ian Heath based on the
Capture of the True Cross at Hattin in Chronica Majora by Matthew Paris.
. Ayyubid Mamluk in Armies and Enemies of the Crusades 1096-1291 by Ian Heath. based on
the 13th Century Kitab al-Diryaq. Nationalbibliothek, Vienna, AF 10.
. Bedouin Tribesmen in Armies and Enemies of the Crusades 1096-1291 by Ian Heath based on
Hariri's Maqamat. and on Arabs in Raschid al-Din's Jami' al-Tawarikh.
. Moslem Musicians from Armies and Enemies of the Crusades 1096-1291 by Ian Heath.
. Saracen Heraldry from Armies and Enemies of the Crusades 1096-1291 by Ian Heath.
. Saracen Standards from Armies and Enemies of the Crusades 1096-1291 by Ian Heath.
Ayyubid Hunter on an Incense-burner or Hand-warmer, 3rd quarter of 13th Century. Museum of Islamic Art, Berlin, Germany.

Mamluk Illustrations:
Ayyubid or Mamkuk inlaid metal bowl, Mosul, Jazira, Iraq, 13th century AD. Staatliche Museen, Berlin, I. 6581.
. Mamluk c.1280 in Armies and Enemies of the Crusades 1096-1291 by Ian Heath based on:
The History of Outremer by William of Tyre. Saltykov-Shchredin State Public Library, Ms. Fr. fol.v.IV.5, St Petersburg, Russia.
. Mamluk Engineer with Midfa in Armies and Enemies of the Crusades 1096-1291 by Ian Heath based on:
The Book of Horsemanship and Ingenious War Devices, by Hassan Al-Rammah, c. 1280.
. Mamluk in full armour c.1290 in Armies and Enemies of the Crusades 1096-1291 by Ian Heath
Mamluk Polo Rider Flask, c.1300AD. Museum für Islamische Kunst der Staatlichen, Berlin, I. 2573.
'Book of Fixed Stars' (Kitab suwar al-kawakib al-Tabita) by 'Abd al-Rahman ibn 'Umar al-Sufi, c.1300AD. National Library, Cairo, Egypt, ms Dar al-Kutub miqat 390.
Mamluk cavalry on a pen box by Ahmad al Dhaki, Egypt or Syria, 1304. Louvre, Paris, OA 3621.
Tab from a Mamluk banner with linked crosses and pear-shaped medallion, Egypt, late 13th century - early 14th century. Ashmolean, EA1984.240
. Mamluks in Armies and Enemies of the Crusades 1096-1291 by Ian Heath based on:
Mamluk metal basin called the Baptistere de Saint Louis early 14th century. Louvre, Paris.
. Mamluk Tabardar in Armies and Enemies of the Crusades 1096-1291 by Ian Heath based on the Baptistère de Saint Louis
Mamluk costume in Kalila and Dimna by Ibn al-Muqaffa', 1st Quarter of the 14th century. Bibliothèque nationale de France, Paris, Arabe 3465.
Kitab fi marifat al-hiyal al-handasiyya (Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices) by al-Jazari, Mamluk Syria or Egypt in 1315 CE.
Frontispiece from a 14th century Mamluk Sulwan Al-Muta' of Ibn Zafar, Egypt, 1325-50 AD. Aga Khan Museum, AKM12.
A Mamluk sketch of a combat, first half of the 14th century. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, inv. 1975.369.
Maqamat of al-Hariri, 1334AD. Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Vienna, manuscript AF 9.
Maqamat of al-Hariri. Bodleian Ms Marsh 458, 1337AD.
A Mamkuk manuscript of Kitab fi marifat al-hiyal al-handasiyya by al-Jazari, copied in Egypt in 1354 CE
Nihayat al-sul, 1371 a Mameluke manual of horsemanship and military practice, 1371AD. British Library, London, Add. 18866.
. A Mamluk, 1366, in Armies and Enemies of the Crusades 1096-1291 by Ian Heath, based on the Nihayat al-sul, 1371
Helmet with the name of Mamluk Sultan Barsbay, 1422-38. Louvre, Paris.
. Mamluks in armour with the helmet based on that of Sultan Barsbay in Armies of the Middle Ages, Volume 2 by Ian Heath
Mamluk costume in Kalila and Dimna by Ibn al-Muqaffa', 15th century. Bibliothèque nationale de France, Arabe 3467.
Kitsab al-makhzun jami' al-funun by ibn akhi hizam. A Mamluk manual of military practice and horsemanship, 1470AD. Bibliothèque nationale de France, Arabe 2824.
. Mamluk Heraldry in Armies of the Middle Ages, Volume 2 by Ian Heath
The Sultan (Viceroy) in Cairo in the manuscript of The pilgrimage of the Knight Arnold von Harff 1496 to 1499. Bodleian, MS. Bodl. 972.
A Mameluke in the manuscript of The pilgrimage of the Knight Arnold von Harff 1496 to 1499
A Mameluke Officer & servant in woodcuts of The pilgrimage of the Knight Arnold von Harff 1496 to 1499
. A Mamluk Servant in Armies of the Middle Ages, Volume 2 by Ian Heath, based on The pilgrimage of Arnold von Harff in 1496 to 1499
Costume and Arms of the Arabs in the manuscript of The pilgrimage of Arnold von Harff in 1496 to 1499
Costume and Arms of the Arabs in a woodcut of The pilgrimage of Arnold von Harff in 1496 to 1499
. A Bedouin Tribesman in Armies of the Middle Ages, Volume 2 by Ian Heath, based on The pilgrimage of Arnold von Harff in 1496 to 1499
A Mamluk Training with a Lance from a furusiyya manuscript, c. 1500. David Collection, Copehagen, Denmark
Sultans with Horns: The Political Significance of Headgear in the Mamluk Empire by Albrecht Fuess
'The Triumph of St George' by Vittore Carpaccio 1502. Scuola di San Giorgio degli Schiavoni, Venice, Italy.
'Mark Preaching in Alexandria' by Gentile and Giovanni Bellini, c.1504-1507. Pinacoteca di Brera, Milan, Italy.
'St George Baptizes the Selenites' by Vittore Carpaccio, c.1507. Scuola di San Giorgio degli Schiavoni, Venice, Italy.
'The reception of Ambassador Domenico Trevisiano at Damascus' painting by Gentille Bellini school, 1511. Louvre, Paris, inv. 100.
. Mamluk foot-soldier c. 1500 in Armies of the Middle Ages, Volume 2 by Ian Heath, based on The Reception of Ambassador Domenico Trevisiano
Ottomans besieging revolting Mamluks in Damascus in Selīm-nāma, c.1521-24AD. Topkapi Sarayi Museum, Istanbul, Turkey, MS. Hazine 1597-8.
Mamalukes in George Gush's 'Persians and other easterners'
Three Mamelukes on horseback, in Constantinople, by Jan Swart van Groningen, 1526. Rijksmuseum, RP-P-1950-409A.
Mamelukes from Códice De Trajes, 1547. Biblioteca Nacional de España, Res/285.
Egyptian from Cairo from Hans Weigel's Habitus Praecipuorum Populorum ... das ist Trachtenbuch, Nuremburg, 1577.
Mamluk Cavalry Soldiers in Illustrations de Diversarum gentium armatura equestris Abraham de Bruyn, 1577. Bibliothèque nationale de France.
Portrait of Al-Ashraf Qansuh al-Ghawri, Mamluk Sultan of Egypt, by Paolo Giovio, 1578
Kitab al-makhzun li arbab al-funun by al-tarabulusi. A manual of military practice and horsemanship, 1578-1579AD. Bibliothèque nationale de France, Paris, Arabe 2826.
. f25r Incendiary arms and incendiary bombs . f25v Combat . f26r Horse archery . f26v Archery . f27r Crossbows
Egyptians in De gli habiti antichi, e moderni di diverse parti del mondo libri due by Cesare Vecellio, 1590AD. Bibliothèque nationale de France, 4-OB-12
Egyptian Youth from Sloan's Album, "The Habits of the Grand Signor's Court", c. 1620AD. British Museum, London, 1928,0323,0.46.
Egyptian from Der Kern Turkischer Geschichte (The core of Turkish history), 1739
Costume in the Mamluk section of Recueil de tous les costumes des ordres religieux et militaires by Jacques Charles Bar, Paris, 1778. Bibliothèque nationale de France, PET FOL-OC-7 (A)

Links to illustrations and articles about the Invasion of Egypt by Napoleon Bonaparte
Egyptians of 1805 from Vorstellung der vorzuglichsten Gattungen des Türckischen Militairs und ihrer Officiere. Vinkhuijzen Collection, NYPL.
Mameluke of Egypt after d'Alvimart in McLean's The Military Costume Of Turkey, 1813
Mameluke in full armour, early 19th century, by Moritz Michael
Illustration of troop types of the Hicks Pasha Expedition to Sudan, 1883. London Graphic Magazine.
Organizations and Uniforms of the Mahdist Armies, 1883-1898 by Doug Johnson, Illustrations by Greg Rose



Index of Illustrations of Costume and Soldiers

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